The Burj Khalifa In The World Tallest Building In Dubai
The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is the tallest man-made feature on the face of the planet and one of the greatest achievements in engineering history to dream it up took outrageous ambition to put it together requires nerves of steel constructing cranes taller installing windows higher and building bigger than ever before the immediate reaction was are you crazy as the construction team makes history they film it themselves this is the story of one incredible skyscraper and the people risking their reputations and their lives to build it all these people that all need this are at risk in the middle-eastern emirate of Dubai stands an architectural giant at 828 meters high the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building on earth [Burj Khalifa] this 1.5 billion dollar tower opened in 2010 with one of the most spectacular fireworks displays ever seen but this patch of land once looked very different six years earlier when construction started it was little more than a barren parched and sun-baked desert in February 2004 the team breaks ground at the burj site when you build this big speed is of the essence time is money there’s so much money invested in these buildings you have to finish them and start recouping your investment construction manager David Bradford is the man responsible for getting the job done on time so I was like static you know just to get a job like this it’s like a dream come true this is the biggest building in the world how many people get an opportunity to work on a job like this but as David starts work the architects are still finalizing the towers complex design the way you build a building like this you have to fast track it so you can’t wait until you get all the design in place you’ll be sitting you know sitting there yeah and yeah in your office for three years trying to get the design finished before you can’t ndred with large parts of the structures still on the drawing board the construction team heads into the sky the fastest way to build a tower like the birch is with reinforced concrete using a process called jump for me [Burj Khalifa] the team builds moulds at the base they insert steel reinforcement bars and pour in concrete then when the concrete sets the team lifts the moulds up to the next level and the process starts again using this system the building begins growing at the pace of one
Burj Khalifa floors
New floor every week when you set the jump form up like this they put the rebar in you pour the concrete in the top after 12 hours this is 12 hours after you place the concrete which is liquid you pull the forms back and you actually climb the hydraulic jump warm system up on the concrete that was previously ported and then the claims of automatically four meters at a time the Burj Kalifa is the brainchild of Dubai property developer EEMA they want to proclaim the city’s growing status as a global financial center by building the world’s tallest tower so amar has called in one of America’s top architecture firms Skidmore Owings and Merrill som is based in Chicago the home of the skyscraper as their chief engineer Bill Baker knows building hire isn’t simply a case of taking an old design and adding more floors the added height creates a unique set of engineering challenges we’re on the 90th floor the Willis Tower formerly known as the Sears Tower as you look out across Chicago skyline you see almost a sampler of skyscraper technology over here is the Aon tower which was formerly called the Standard Oil Building and it’s a single tube each time architects go Tola they must invent new structural systems if you look the predecessor to the Sears Tower the John Hancock Tower it’s called a brace tool so you can see the diagonal bracing on each of the four sides ties all those columns together so it acts as if it’s one two acting together one of the last great structural inventions came with the tower that bill is standing on at 442 meters the Willis Tower was the world’s tallest building until 1996 its design is called a bundled tube essentially it’s made up of nine towers bound together to create a single rigid structure but this design has its limits this nine tubes is sufficient for a building of this height of 442 meters but what if you wanted to go tall or say you wanted to go up to over 700 meters well if you got to make the footprint bigger but as we do this we’ve gone from something that was three wide is something that’s five wide so you have a huge amount of area which is difficult to market and and what’s more important is that the space becomes very very deep in buildings and you want to have views you want to be able to see out the window and you can see your occupants would be so far from the views from the skin and surrender the building of unusable to create a toilet tower with bright internal spaces bill and his team devised a new structural system the structural system we use for the
Burj Khalifa is the buttress core now the core is the center hexagon middle of the building and that’s what’s used to resist it torque at the twisting forces on the bill in okay but it’s not too slender to grow due to such great heights so it needs to be but just now the buttresses are the three wings that come off its consisting of these walls that go down the corridors so you can see how this core has been but wrists in three directions why the structure going and the wings to my knowledge has never been done anywhere else and so it’s it’s a unique solution to a very interesting problem with the but wrist call concept natural light floods the interior you come up with the solution which losses to go very very tall but but it’s it’s light and airy on the inside it’s as if the urea in a ten story building rather than one hundred and sixty three billion in som s design the large tower base help support the huge weight of steel and concrete then as the building climbs the buttresses step back in a rising spiral the team then coats the design and listening mirrored glass to reflect the desert heat and light if you were to compare the bridge to an automobile you’ll be talking about Lamborghinis or Ferraris it’s all about performance and this this building is at the highest level of performance this quality comes at a price the building cost was a closely guarded secret we heard some general general figures that were thrown out we guessed that it was somewhere in a billion and a half dollar range but we weren’t privy to all of that information and again I think the jury’s still out making this billion-dollar design a reality will be a mammoth task the most basic construction materials must be super-powered the strength of concrete was key here absolutely key and we produced concrete here that nobody produced anywhere else the team uses over 25 separate ingredients to create concrete that stays liquid as it’s pumped up the building and then turns solid extremely fast but getting this special mix to set is a massive challenge in Dubai with temperatures rising over 45 degrees Celsius if the concrete is too hot it’ll set instantaneously and you can’t even place it you have to pour at night when the temperatures are lower and you have to put in ice and chill water in the concrete mix to lift this mix up the building the construction team uses three of the world’s most powerful concrete pumps over 32 months the pumps deliver 165 thousand cubic meters of concrete enough to lay a sidewalk 880 kilometres long the team will then top the concrete tower with structural steel and as this building Rockets out of the desert men and machinery will go to greater heights than ever seen before okay over the edge [Burj Khalifa] the city of Dubai is home to 17 of the 100 highest skyscrapers on earth but they’re about to be dwarfed by a monster as construction accelerates the Burj Khalifa is now growing a new floor every three days the idea is keep the ball rolling never stop construction any point in the product in the in the project until you finished the building’s handed over that’s it that’s when you can relax while this process continues there is still one fundamental detail to resolve the architects still haven’t decided on the building’s final height usually minor things changed and this one major things changed we had the foundations went in way before we would figure out the final height this building it’s an issue that has to be cleared up fast the landmark to beat is the 508 meet at all taipei 101 in taiwan som s original design is just ten meters higher and where the reason why we did that is we didn’t want to promise more than we knew we could deliver but the architects soon calculate that the structure is so strong it could stand over 300 meters taller we kept on making the building taller and taller and so it actually are grew to about 700 25 meters there for a while and stayed there for a while that eventually grew up to around 800 meters and finally ended up with the 828 meter height when complete the birds will stand 828 meters above the ground the question is other foundations strong enough to hold it up early on in construction analysis of the ground under the site highlighted a problem it’s not like you know when I worked in New York City you get good granite there you go down four or five meters even a good granite and that’s what you you set your foundation on the granite itself here the ground is top layer of sand three or four meters of sand and again in two weeks and stones we climb stones nothing very good but science provides the answer the future of the Burj Khalifa and its entire colossal weight rests on one scientific principle friction there’s basically two methods and piling one is end bearing piles which I put applies directly on the hard rock that’s what can sustain load but here that he went with skin friction piles where the weight of the tower is carried on the on the on the friction of the pile the side of the pile the foundations of the birch rely on the super strong grip created between the ground and the sides of each pile beneath the tower the team has driven 192 piles to a depth of 50 meters to support a 3.7 meter thick raft of solid concrete [Music] these foundations must hold up a building that weighs over 500,000 tons the numbers are so big that the team has to allow for a small degree of settling in the design once we have evaluate all the total load of the building live and dead loads we expect the foundations to settle about 75 millimetres but the foundations should hold three years after breaking ground construction reaches five hundred and twelve meters and 141 floors [Burj Khalifa] the birch is now the tallest building on earth to help move materials the team hires three of the biggest construction cranes in the world I mean these are very specialist trains actually huge the way 120 tons deadweight that’s a crane itself and without anything on the hook the high wire act of installing the cranes falls to a special group of men [Music] a Sharif and his team of crane reduce [Music] these men come from every part of the globe and many speak different languages but they have two things in common a strong nerve and an incredible head for Heights their task is to erect the cranes and keep them working smoothly all without a single slip they never ever lost sight of the ground and the edge of the building and it was amazing that these people were so comfortable the cranes contain an ingenious self jacking mechanism so they can grow alongside the rising building as every new floor is completed Sharif and his team add another section to the tower support and lift each crane even higher [Burj Khalifa] you need a steady hand to operate the highest construction crane in the world and one of the few trusted with the task is Mohammed from Pakistan I’m on duty for 12 hours from 7:00 in the morning until 7:00 in the evening there was a myth going around that the crane operator lived in the cabin but I think the cabins are too cramped and uncomfortable at 700 metres up in the air Mohammed’s crane cab is nearly twice as high as the Empire State Building [Burj Khalifa] merica height I like Heights they’re great for book if I need to go higher that’s fine whatever the height is God willing I’ll do it as the birds reaches for the sky it is entering the unknown and one powerful force is becoming an increasing threat the first overall overarching thing is you have to be respectful of the laws of nature with gravity wind and the Sun a known as super high rise the most dangerous and unpredictable that these elements is wind when you get to these Heights that the dominant load is actually wind load it’s not dead load which is actually the weight of the structure and the cladding and so forth it’s not live load which is the people in the building that’s fairly fairly small it’s actually wind load you know you get the wind blowing on the side of the tower and of course it tends to bend the tower or try to push it over no building demonstrates this problem better than the John Hancock Tower in Boston a masterpiece of steel and glass 240 meters tall the Hancock was constructed in the 1970s but serious problems soon emerged even in moderate wins people inside suffered motion sickness is the building swayed and over 5,000 glass panels blew out shattering on the sidewalk below only a major redesign save the tower from demolition to prevent the birch from suffering a similar fate the team tests the building in a wind tunnel Peter Irwin is one of the world’s top wind engineers these are various models of different different buildings we’ve tested in the past this one here shows some of the unusual shapes that architects are coming up with that one was being built in China when we get involved with a wind engineering project there are two aspects that we need to address first of all we need to know what are the winds doing in the area that the building is going to be built then we also need to know what is it going to do for the Golden Peter and the team calculate that the Burj has to withstand gusts of up to 240 km/h but because of its height this tower faces an added danger buildings as they get taller and more slender run into everywhere a particular phenomenon in wind called vortex shedding this is a model of a tall building and the wind is blowing this way and what happens with the building like this is that you get vortices peeling off this front corner first off one side and then off the other side as these whirlwinds peal off each side of a skyscraper they can pull the building violently from side to side Peter and the team must make sure that this phenomenon doesn’t damage the birch there were three aerodynamic improvements that were developed as a result of the Windtunnel tests one of them was to improve the shape of these outer buttresses by softening the corner here another one was to reduce the width of the tower higher up and a third improvement was achieved by reorienting the entire tower relative to the prevailing wind directions the end result is an incredibly stable building with a shape that resists vortex shedding so you might say this shape confuses the wind and it’s unable to create these strong crosswind forces that affect many other buildings the birch is equipped to handle the strongest winds that strike Dubai on-site the superstructure is shooting upwards once completed the Burj Kalifa will contain 900 apartments a 160 room hotel and 37 floors of offices the building will use up to 36 megawatts of electricity enough to power a town of 20,000 people in a power outage five huge generators will supply backup electricity but first someone has to get these massive machines into position three days before Christmas Day and look what Santa’s Ravi that’s a 22-ton generator and there’s five of them pull gently keep your eyes on the machine we go it’s supposed to be 22 someone somewhere has made a critical mistake yo each generator should weigh 22 tons why is it 26 tons you’re amazing amazing everything is rated below 25 tonnes the spread of Amos Israel until 25 tons these holy slings the six tonnes each that’s 24 tonnes and we’re trying to lift 26 tonnes therefore all these people that are underneath this are at risk why is that right now my people at a risk yes yes the generator is 4 tonnes too heavy and the chains could snap at any moment put it down these things are not an exact science it’s experiencing like sooner not risk the lives of men all machines when you’re building on this scale safety is paramount the team must reinforce the lifting gear before moving the generators into the building as work progresses the task of keeping everything on schedule is taking its toll on David Bradford I went all out here to produce the best job possible I’d add an impact obviously on my you know the family life my wife didn’t seem um oh she didn’t complain about it but you know I’d show up home and my wife was already had already gone to bed and I go out in the morning before she or she got but the jobs just about to get even tougher it’s kind of a building you can’t afford to make mistakes the bottom line you make a mistake the building stops then everybody incurs huge costs you know the contractors got all his plant equipment lying idle he’s got thousands of work on the out of work basically can’t afford mistakes you have to check double check everything has to be more or less perfect you know all the way up the building and with the superstructure almost done one thing is less than perfect the glass panels that should already cover most of the building are still nowhere in sight as the finished shape of the Burj Kalifa begins to emerge from Dubai’s desert haze the team urgently needs to start planning the building in its steel and glass facade as the construction drives upward you need the cladding to enclose the building create interior environment where you can actually work inside and Diouf it out and mechanical work all the kinds of things that make the building habitable need an enclosure it is a massive task to seal the structure from wind rain and sand twenty four thousand three hundred and forty-eight individual panels must be assembled and installed on the exterior but the company commissioned to supply the panel’s has gone bust now the building is in danger of going over schedule and over budget every idle day every decisions has not made you know costs of somebody a lot of money local contractor Arabian aluminium brings a new panel supplier on board and they track down a problem solver to kick start the operation well hopped on a plane arrived in Dubai for the interview and was taken to the job site he said well this is the job and this is what you’re going to be doing and I looked up and I said wow he goes yeah it’s not even halfway there so big surprise and I said well where’s the windows he said well there’s a problem there is no curtain walling there’s no design we don’t have a system I said well this is a job for me then I can fix this problem construction of the facade is now 18 months behind schedule to put the build back on track john zurafa helped set up a brand new factory devoted entirely to the birch I thought yeah it’s gonna be difficult but it’s a challenge we were fairly amazed because they went from appointment of their new contract through design to production of the components and ready for the testing in a space of 4 months this is a typical panel that was used on the Burj basically with a vision glass big piece of vision small vision glass stainless steel spandrel vertical bullnose it’s a stainless steel phim it’s mirror finish which is at the moment got protection on it which will eventually get taken off these panels that literally lift it up as a complete unit they’re hung that’s why they call it a Kurd wall it’s actually hanging from the slab above covering buildings and glass might look good but in Dubai this creates a special challenge as John demonstrates we’ve got a piece of clear glass here this normal glass the sensors are measuring the temperature in the box to understand how much heat is transferring through the glass and into the box so if this was on the building this is the amount of heat that would transfer through the glass and into the building the outside temperature is now reading 46 degrees Celsius which is very very hot as you can see we’re having a bit of a sweat 46 degrees Celsius is high but that’s nothing compared to the temperature under the glass the current temperature inside the clear glass box is reading 98 degrees Celsius so not too many human beings that I know could actually live in this environment the internal temperature is just below boiling point if this ordinary glass were installed in the verge the building’s interior could become the world’s biggest sauna but the team has a high-tech solution here we’ve got the glass for the Burj Khalifa which has two coatings on it the outside coating is a silver coating which captures the UV rays and reflects them back out of the building inside coating is a titanium coating which captures the infrared rays by reflecting infrared and UV rays the glass drastically reduces the amount of heat that penetrates the building but this technology comes at a cost to everything that is involved with making a panel to the point of bringing it aside and installing it you’re probably talking close to 2,000 US dollars a panel times 24,000 panels it’s a lot of a lot of money so 24,000 times 2,000 is 48 million as the glass and aluminium arrived and Dubai factory workers assemble the panels and ship them straight to the building site the panels are up to six point four meters long and weigh up to 750 kilograms and every single one must be lifted individually and installed by hand it’s very dangerous you can imagine these panels at quite large and it’s as soon as the wind grabs and like a big sales so very difficult to control the panel go flying back into the building the glass would break and you’re going to get a share of glass coming down the building a guy could get his legs cut open and stuff like that it’s quite dangerous as the workmen seal the building no one is following progress closer than construction manager David Bradford the major milestone believe me been working on this thing for a year now it’s been a nightmare on a Friday if I wasn’t coming into work and set my telescope up on the roof and spy on the cladding contractor to make sure you thought he was now given a telephone call hey what happened you know why while you’re working we actually recovered all the time that we needed to get the building back on track which was really astounding that they were able to do this the curtain wall is virtually finished five years after breaking ground the birds is racing towards completion on the outside of the building one of its signature features is taking shape the highest external balconies in the world it was a client suggestion and my first thought was you better bolt on the furniture well head into the main control room wind engineer Peter Owen has a simple way of demonstrating the problem using a state-of-the-art wind tunnel at the University of Ontario run by engineer John Kumar the air is streaming through this side it contracts right through this nozzle in a very uniform fashion and streams right into that corner number one okay what we want to do today is to look at the effect of wind on people we will presume to be able to have them harnessed and yes they strapped me certainly strap them down and get them leg on the floor the only thing in Dubai the Burj Kalifa might be hit by winds gusting up to 240 km/h and this demonstration will show the effect of high winds if an ordinary person was standing on an unprotected balcony they were turning on the wind Simon it’s going to go up to 70 miles an hour so get ready okay [Burj Khalifa] 130 km/h is equivalent to a category 1 hurricane could you try and take one or two steps forward okay thank you that’s enough [Applause] to prevent people being blown off the Burj Khalifa the architects developed ways to protect balcony users from the wind we came up with these glazed balustrade which keep the wind from blowing straight through across the balcony terraces we came up with these architectural dividers which keep the wind from coming over the balustrade and sweeping across the surface of the terraces and we created these trellises which stop the downdraft from pushing down over the tops of each terrace but inside is the most ingenious solution well we have Wendell Arms installed on every facade where there’s a terrace so if the wind speed on the terrorists exceeds what we consider to be safe for the occupants there will be an alarm that goes off to warn people not to use the terrace that particular moment meanwhile further up the building has yet to reach its final height the construction team must crown the structure with one of the most extraordinary pieces of Engineering ever attempted a 136 metre tall steel pipe weighing over 350 tonnes and measuring just 1.2 meters across at the very top spiral to us seemed to be the culmination of the building how do you take this tapering tower and end it if you chopped it off it would look truncated so we thought had stretched all the way up into the sky but there’s a huge problem how to lift the spire and place it on top of the building thing is that we couldn’t get the crane high enough up to set this by it even with a crane at maximum boom height it couldn’t get anywhere near the top of spire no crane in the world can handle this job and no helicopter can lift 350 tons of steel it seems the spire is too big and its destination too high but then an engineer suggests an ingenious solution lift the spire in pieces and assemble it inside the building spire was basically constructed inside the shaft of the building and then using strand jacks it was then jacked out of the building [Burj Khalifa] all the lead architects and engineers gather to see the spire rise in to its final position here we are for the last jaquenetta spire to take it up to the top [Burj Khalifa] pretty nice competency that’s happening for the first time the silhouette of the birch is complete the team can now start to apply the finishing touches this building doesn’t just have to be the tallest in the world it also has to be the best [Burj Khalifa] and to make sure it’s just that some brave men are about to go to extraordinary Heights so long way down here long way down [Burj Khalifa] after an incredible team effort workers are finally installing the last curtain wall panel on the Burj Khalifa [Burj Khalifa] and the key to the job was the planning we planned that whole thing down to the millimeter down to the second the race is now on to finish the building before it opens in three months after six years of construction it’s covered in dirt and dust but there’s a simple solution teams of window cleaners will polish the entire facade by hand and rope all 20 4348 panels 800 meters up there’s one more job after dark the entire building will be illuminated by thousands of decorative lights but at the tip of the spire the last seven lights still need to be installed the score per work was to cut seven holes into the existing spire if it was me I would probably would have said out the two thousand lights seven forget about it standing on the ground you’re not going to know this but a mom wanted to do this job a hundred percent you know they set their targets very high the construction team must find a way to finish the job you couldn’t get a scaffold up there the crane couldn’t get that high rope access expert
How much is the ticket and time for Burj Khalifa?
AT THE TOP LEVEL 125 + 124
AT THE TOP SKY LEVEL 148 + 125 +124
16h00 – 18h00
09h30 – 18h00
Adult (12 years +) General Admission
Child (4-12 years) General Admission
Adult (12 years +) Immediate Entry Admission
How many floors is Burj Khalifa?
in burj At over 828 metres (2,716.5 feet) and more than 160 stories, Burj Khalifa holds the following records: Tallest building in the world.
Is Dubai a country or city?
It’s not a country; it’s a city, and or city/state. The country is the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and it’s made up of seven city/states, Dubai being one of them. It’s not even the capital – that would be Abu Dhabi.
Is Burj Khalifa a hotel or tower?
First things first: yes, there is a hotel operating at Burj Khalifa – Armani Hotel Dubai. Secondly, Burj Khalifa, formerly known as Burj Dubai, a building soaring up to 829.8 m (2,722 ft), includes a hotel
Otte has the answer the immediate reaction was are you crazy you know I mean how do you intend on doing this by hanging on a rope make recruits a highly trained supervisor to leave the job now this is not Silla this is a guy that’s worked in the the rope access industry for many years but just before they’re due to start disaster strikes at this height it does something to you you know you’re totally out of your limits making our way into the spire I could see it in his eyes he was concerned he went white he stops and he says I’m sorry I says what’s wrong he says I don’t want to put me on life at risk I can’t do this job with no time left to find a replacement there’s only one solution Mick has to lead the job himself it’s a highly dangerous task in some of the toughest conditions imaginable for me it was the heat it was the environment here in Dubai you know it was a heavy construction job in an extreme environment it’s too dangerous and inaccessible for a TV crew but make films it himself first inside the spire the Burj Khalifa team comes seven holes in the 55 millimeter thick steel then Mick has to seal the lights in place from the outside we got to the top of the spire and I rigged the job up and threw the rope and looking to make sure I had knots on the end of them this one’s a serious one yeah okay very serious you already now already sir I came over the edge it’s a long way down here that’s a long long way down [Burj Khalifa] you feel so high you know it doesn’t feel real Jameel yes sir okay all right yeah the initial going over the site and doing the ups here it was just a mega pose that was like should I look down or not we’ve been cutting the hole but the steel we’ve then been installed in the light housing and now we want to finish by ceiling master yeah so that is the job complete these guys they have bodies that steel isn’t that right guys see this is what it’s all about appreciating your job [Burj Khalifa] the Burj Kalifa finally opens to the world in January 2010 standing 828 meters high it is the world’s tallest tower by over 300 meters creating it of the combined effort of tens of thousands of people from the hardest workers and the toughest bosses to some of the brightest minds in the architectural world was a great feeling to get the job or even a better feeling to finish it and you can see the result over there I mean it’s really as a fantastic building “Burj Khalifa”